"Vision and Action for Building 'One Belt One Road' Agricultural Cooperation," appeared in its Farmers Daily newspaper with authorship attributed to the Ministry of Agriculture, National Development and Reform Commission, and China's State Council. It was posted May 12, 2017, just in time for the "One Belt, One Road" to be held in Beijing May 14-15 with dozens of world leaders in attendance. "One Belt One Road" is China's initiative to revive ancient trade routes between Asia and Europe, and which also run through poor countries in Asia and Africa. In addition to building railways and other logistic infrastructure and investing in factories, China hopes to take the lead in sharing its successful experience in agriculture with the "belt road" countries, lower barriers to trade, share information and technology, and work together on plans, financing, and rewriting the rules of international trade.
The vision for agricultural cooperation is described as an exploration of new models for global governance. The lengthy essay lays out China's motivation, principles and actions for solving world hunger, fostering a new era of rising agricultural trade and investment, promoting sustainable development, and cross-border sharing of technology and information. The document says the complicated global economy and China's increasing interconnections with international agricultural markets create a great opportunity for China's "Belt Road" initiative.
According to the document,
"China wants to do whatever it can to bear much greater responsibility, contributing Chinese wisdom in building up the international food and agricultural governance system, and sharing China’s experience with countries along the belt-road path to make a much greater contribution to agricultural development and economic growth."The document says “One Belt One Road” runs through the Asian, European and African continents. It connects the "active East Asian economic sphere with an ancient history of agricultural development" on one end with the "European economic sphere where modern agriculture has a clear advantage" on the other end. In the middle is "a vast hinterland of abundant agricultural resources with huge development potential, each region with its own advantage in agricultural resources, technology, production capacity, and markets with strong complementarity."
One Belt One Road focuses on six major economic corridors:
- Asia-Europe land bridge
- China-Central Asia-West Asia
- China-Southeast Asian Peninsula
It does not include the American continent, but the magnanimous document insists that no countries are excluded. The document invites companies from all countries to invest in One Belt One Road.
China's concept of agricultural cooperation encompasses government-government exchanges, research institutes and companies. The document recommends a "3-in-1" platform in which all three types of entities collaborate. It also calls for exchanges of technical and management personnel, germplasm, and agricultural policy dialogues. Exchanges of farmers and private organizations are also encouraged.
The document calls for streamlining inspection and quarantine procedures, working together on prevention and control of animal and plant diseases, promoting cross-border e-commerce. China also proposes to rewrite trade rules, mandate traceability systems and "jointly regulate market behavior."
China's international agricultural cooperation strategy offers few specifics. It calls for "strengthening" existing multilateral organizations such as the World Bank, FAO, WTO, and various regional organizations in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa, as well as new institutions like the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank created by China. The strategy also aims to use existing meetings and forums on international development and food security while also developing new platforms such as a “One Belt One Road” agricultural cooperation partnership mechanism, an "agricultural planning research exchange platform," and commissioning a “one belt one road” web site with agricultural resources as "platforms for mutual sharing."
The most concrete (no pun intended) proposals are to set up agricultural technology parks, demonstration centers, and training bases overseas. It also mentions a pilot program to build domestic agricultural foreign-opening cooperation districts in China.
The ambitious document is packed with idealistic rhetoric about addressing global nutrition and food security, "sharing", respect, equality, and mutual interests. It contains some I'd-like-to-teach-the-world-to-sing verbiage about "moving forward hand-in-hand" toward a future of agricultural abundance and sustainable, and green development. Rhetoric about "south-south cooperation" evokes Mao's abortive attempts to become a leader of the nonaligned countries which was the genesis of China's original round of foreign aid projects during the last century.
Breaking the global dominance of the United States is an unspoken theme of the "Belt Road" project and the agricultural cooperation initiative. The document identifies the global financial crisis in 2008-09 and market fluctuations due to financial speculation as responsible for the complex global economic situation, without blaming the United States by name. While the United States is never mentioned, the "multipolar world" subtext suggests that the world needs a magnanimous, sharing, wise China to create an alternative to the U.S.-dominated agricultural trade and multilateral organizations.
This is rich, coming from a country that keeps grain reserves a "state secret," hides soil contamination problems, arrests people for reporting facts published in newspapers, routinely responds to questions about its policies at the WTO with one-word answers, and has a decades-old policy of turning agricultural imports and exports on and off like a faucet to "balance" domestic supply and demand.